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Acne is a skin condition that causes whiteheads, blackheads, and inflamed red lesions (papules, pustules, and cysts) to form. These growths are commonly called pimples. Acne occurs when tiny holes on the surface of the skin, called pores, become clogged. Each pore is an opening to a canal called a follicle, which contains a hair and an oil gland. Normally, the oil glands help keep the skin lubricated. When glands produce too much oil, the pores can become blocked, accumulating dirt, debris, and bacteria. The blockage is called a plug or comedone


Normal Follicles:

Sebum produced by the sebaceous gland combines with cells being sloughed off within the hair follicle and "fills up" the hair follicle. When the follicle is "full", the sebum spreads over the skin surface giving the skin an oily appearance.

Obstructed Follicles

When the sebum is trapped in the hair follicle causes plugging up the follicle. The process of obstructing follicles is called comedogenesis. It causes some follicles to form a type of acne called comedones, also known as blackheads and whiteheads.

Propionibacterium acne:

Propionibacterium acne is a bacterium that lives on your skin and uses the sebum as nutrients for his growth. The sebaceous glands are hypersensitive to androgens that causes enlarge of gland and more sebum secretion. In puberty the androgens hormone is secreted more and thus there is more sebum secretion and more Propionibacterium acne in the follicle. The presence of P.acne attracts WBC to the follicle and thus an inflammatory reaction is settled up.

No one factor causes acne. Several factors can contribute to the cause of acne

Changing Hormone Levels

For most people with acne, it begins at puberty. This is when the body starts to produce hormones called androgens. Androgens cause the enlargement and overstimulation of the sebaceous glands. Sensitivity to these androgens also cause acne to appear during the menstrual cycle and sometimes in pregnancy. Starting or stopping birth control pills can also cause acne.


Severe or prolonged emotional tension and stress may aggravate the Acne condition. Stress cause the production of hormones, such as cortisol, which can aggravate acne.


Some medications may cause acne, such as anti convulstant drugs, lithium, bromides, or oral or injected steroids. Most cases of acne, however, are not drug related.

Skin Care Products

Some cosmetics and skin-care products are pore clogging. The skin care products which have the ingredients of ‘water based’ are usually safe.

How Acne Develop

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