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Allergy

What is allergy?

Normally, our immune system helps protect us. It does this by sending in special cells, that attack whenever viruses, bacteria, or other harmful substances invade our body. This response helps neutralize the foreign invaders. But many things enter our body that the immune system usually views as harmless. This can include things like pet hair; dust mites; and tree, weed, or grass pollen. In a person with allergies, the immune system mistakes these harmless substances, known as allergens, for a potential threat and starts to react it in an altered way and as result different allergic symptoms like sneezing, runny nose, asthmatic symptoms, skin rashes develops. Allergies can strike anyone, regardless of age, gender, ethnic background, or social or economic status. One of the most common forms of allergies is an allergic reaction to something in the air. These tiny particles floating in the air are so small that they cannot even be seen. But, when breathed into the nose or lungs, or when they come in contact with the eyes, they can cause an allergic reaction. These particles are called allergens, a name given to substances that cause an allergic reaction.

Allergy can be differentiated broadly into two type – seasonal allergy and year-round allergy. As the names imply, seasonal allergies are those that occur or get worse during a particular time of year. Year-round allergies, on the other hand, are allergies that can occur all-year long.

Common triggers of seasonal allergies are found outdoors and include spores from fungi and mold along with pollen from trees, grasses and weeds. With pollen, each plant has a pollinating period that is more or less the same from year to year, whether it be during the spring, summer, or fall. A person will have symptoms based on when the allergen they are allergic to is in the air.

Year-round allergies are often triggered by allergens found indoors. Common indoor allergens include dust mites, which are bugs so small that you can't see them, mold, cockroaches, and animal dander, which are dead skin flakes from animals with fur.

Types of allergy: Many health disorders are caused by an allergic reaction. The most commons are given below

Allergic bronchial asthma

It is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. It is triggered by various allergens or irritants. In allergic asthma, when the airways come in contact with an allergen, the immune system reacts and releases chemicals. These chemicals cause the muscles around the airways to tighten. Inflammation, swelling, and a buildup of mucus in the airways causes further narrowing.

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is a collection of symptoms, mostly in the nose and eyes, which occur when you breathe in something you are allergic to, such as dust, dander, or pollen.

This article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to outdoor triggers, such as plant pollen. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called hay fever.

An allergen is something that triggers an allergy. When a person with allergic rhinitis breathes in an allergen such as pollen or dust, the body releases chemicals, including histamine. This causes allergy symptoms such as itching, swelling, and mucus production.

Hay fever involves an allergic reaction to pollen. The pollens that cause hay fever vary from person to person and from region to region.

The amount of pollen in the air can play a role in whether hay fever symptoms develop. Hot, dry, windy days are more likely to have increased amounts of pollen in the air than cool, damp, rainy days when most pollen is washed to the ground. Some disorders may be associated with allergies. These include eczema and asthma.

Allergies are common. Your genes and environment may make you more prone to allergies.

Urticaria or hives

Urticaria (or hives) is a kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps. Hives is frequently caused by allergic reactions; however, there are many non-allergic causes. Most cases of hives lasting less than six weeks (acute urticaria) are the result of an allergic trigger.

Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is a type of skin rash. The term "atopic" refers to a tendency to develop allergy conditions, and the term "dermatitis" means swelling of the skin. Atopic dermatitis is often referred to as eczema, which is a general term for several types of skin inflammation. People who live in cities and/or dry climates may be more likely to get the condition. Atopic dermatitis usually develops in early childhood and continues into the teen years, but it can affect people of all ages.

Anaphylaxis Reaction

Anaphylaxis is a severe, whole-body allergic reaction to any allergen. The Common causes include drug allergies, food allergies, insect bites/stings. Anaphylaxis is life-threatening and can occur at any time. Risks include a history of any type of allergic reaction.

Pathogenesis Of Allergy

 
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